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IDLP Newsletter 3 – December 2015

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Contents

1. Message from the IDL Project Coordinating Team

2. Past Activities

• University of l'Aquila PhD Seminar on the Legal Aspects of Post-Disaster Management

• Meeting of the Italian National Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction

• University of Bologna-Alma Mater Seminar “I disastri nell’ottica del diritto internazionale”

• An Insight into the Work of the ILC: the Special Rapporteur Visited the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna

• Launch of the Italian IDRL Report: Conference “Strengthening the Legal and Policy Framework for International Disaster Response in Italy”

• Roma Tre Expert Meeting on the ILC Draft Articles on the Protection of Persons in the Event of Disasters

• Brunel Law School Conference “Culture on the Move”

• 3rd Course on “International Disaster Response Law”

• 2nd IIHL-IFRC International Disaster Law Course

3. Future Activities

• 4th Course on "International Disaster Response Law"

• 3rd IIHL-IFRC International Disaster Law Course

• International Conference "The Protection of Persons in Times of Disasters: International and European Legal Perspectives"

4. Developments in Int'l Disaster Law 

Developments in International Law

• 2015 UN Paris Conference on Climate Change 

• IDL and the 2015 32nd ICRC Conference

• Nansen Initiative Inter-Governmental Global Consultation on the Protection Agenda

• ISDR Asia Partnership Meeting of 2015

• 17th Session of the World Meteorological Congress

• Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction

Developments in EU Law and Practice

• EU Council Presidency Activates Crisis Response Information Exchange

• 6th European Forum on Disaster Risk Reduction

• EU's Civil Protection Mechanism Helps European States Cope with Refugee Influx

• Establishment of the New EU Disaster Risk Management Knowledge Centre

• EU Commission Adopts Risk Management Capability Assessment Guidelines

• EU Assists Greece in Fighting Forest Fires

• European Civil Protection Forum

• New Directive on the Consular Protection of EU Citizens

• Serbia Joins the EU Civil Protection Mechanism

• EU Supports the Evacuation of EU Citizens from Yemen

Developments in Other Regional Organizations

• Kyrgyzstan Takes the Regional Lead on Legislation for the Facilitation of International Disaster Relief Assistance

• The Central America's Integral Disaster Risk Managment Policy Adopted the Declaration of El Salvador

• African States and International Experts Endorsed a New International Framework on Cooperation in Emergency Relief Operations

• MENA Adopted the Disaster Management Strategy 2015-2020

• The 7th Africa Working Group Meeting on Disaster Risk Reduction

5. IDL Publications

• New IDLP Publications

• IDL Publications

6. News

• Free Online Course "Public Health Principles in Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response"

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1. Message from the IDL Project Coordinating Team 

Dear reader,

Welcome to the third issue of the International Disaster Law (IDL) Project Newsletter.

Published two times a year, this Newsletter aims first to present the research and training activities carried out by the IDL Project members, and their planned future activities.

The Newsletter also includes a short survey on major developments occurred in the IDL domain at universal and regional level (starting from the results of the long-awaited UN Paris Conference on Climate Change), as well as a selection of new IDL publications.

Hoping you enjoy this Newsletter, and welcoming any feedback, we wish you a Joyful 2016.

Warm Regards,

Flavia Zorzi Giustiniani
Giulio Bartolini
Federico Casolari
Emanuele Sommario

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2. Past Activities

University of l'Aquila Ph.D. Seminar on Legal Aspects of Post-Disaster Managment

20 October 2015 - L’Aquila, Italy

Dr. Emanuele Sommario - IDLP unit coordinator – was invited to deliver a seminar on the “Legal Aspects of International Disaster Management” within the framework of the PhD in Change and Complexity Management offered by the Gran Sasso Science Institute in L’Aquila.

The seminar revolved around the international and European legal frameworks currently in place to facilitate cross-border disaster assistance activities, with special emphasis on the status of the relief personnel involved and on the outstanding legal problems affecting this kind of operations.

Meeting of the Italian National Platform on Disaster Risk Reduction

16 October 2015 - Rome, Italy

Prof. Giulio Bartolini and Prof. Federico Casolari - IDLP unit coordinators - facilitated and took part in the meeting of the Italian National Platform on Disaster Risk Reduction, i.e. the Italian focal point in relation to the International Strategy of Disaster Risk Reduction (ISDR). The main aim of the meeting, in which also representatives of the IFRC Disaster Law Programme and of the UNIDRS participated, was to discuss the draft of the IFRC-UNDP  'Checklist on Law and Disaster Risk Reduction', a practical tool meant to help States to strenghten their legal orders in DRR. The Italian Platform volunteered indeed to test the draft before its final text was annexed to resolutions tabled at the 32nd International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent.

 

University of Bologna Seminar "I disastri nell'ottica del diritto internazionale"

5 October 2015 - Bologna, Italy

The IDLP members Prof. Federico Casolari and Prof. Giulio Bartolini co-hosted the Seminar “I disastri nell’ottica del diritto internazionale” at the Law School of the University of Bologna. Prof. Bartolini delivered a note entitled “I lavori di codificazione e sviluppo progressivo del diritto internazionale della CDI sulla protezione delle persone in caso di disastro”, whereas Prof. Casolari spoke about “Il quadro giuridico internazionale relativo all’assistenza in caso di disastro: il caso italiano”.

For more information, download the flyer of the event.

An Insight into the Work of the ILC: the Special Rapporteur Visited the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna

18 June 2015

Dr. Eduardo Valencia-Ospina held a Seminar entitled "Legal Protection of Persons in Times of Disasters: an insight into the work of the International Law Commission" upon invitation of dr. Emanuele Sommario - IDLP unit coordinator - at the Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna of Pisa on 18 June 2015. The Seminar was included within the broader academic activities of the Scuola concerning IDL. For further information see here.

Launch of the Italian IDRL Report - Conference "Strenghtening the Legal and Policy Framework for International Disaster Response in Italy"

15 June 2015 - Bologna, Italy

 

The conference “Strengthening the Legal and Policy Framework for International Disaster Response in Italy” was held at the Law School of the University of Bologna on 15 June 2015, to launch the Italian IDRL Report, prepared by members of the International Disaster Law Project.

The conference involved presentations by Eduardo Valencia-Ospina (International Law Commission Special Rapporteur on the protection of persons in the event of disasters), Michael Eburn (Australian National University), Marco Gestri (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia), Mauro Gatti (University of Bologna - IDL Project), Fabio Carturan (Italian Red Cross) and Danilo Bilotta (Italian Civil Protection Department). The conference was moderated by Attila Tanzi (University of Bologna) and Federico Casolari (coordinator of the Bologna unit of the IDLP).

For more information on the conference, its programme and related material, see here.

Roma Tre Expert Meeting on the ILC Draft Articles on the Protection of Persons in the Event of Disasters

8 - 9 June 2015 - Rome, Italy

On 8 and 9 June 2015 Prof. Giulio Bartolini - IDLP unit coordinator - organized an Expert Meeting on the ILC Draft Articles on the Protection of Persons in the Event of Disasters at the Department of Law of the Roma Tre University, Rome, Italy.

In view of the relevance of this topic and to stimulate further analysis on the future activities in this area, the Department of Law, Roma Tre University hosted a selected group of experts from international organizations, academia, governments and civil society for a two-day frank and engaging discussion on the ILC’s Draft Articles, as adopted on first reading. The underlying idea was to facilitate an open discussion with relevant stakeholders and external experts at a critical moment for the Project, in anticipation of the second reading. The participation of high-level representatives of the main humanitarian organizations involved in the area as well as of renowned scholars emphasises the relevance of this Project outside the realm of the Commission. Invited speakers included dr. Eduardo Valencia-Ospina, Special Rapporteur of the ILC.

The full Report of the Conference can be accessed here.

Brunel Law School Conference "Culture on the Move"

29 May 2015 - London, United Kingdom

On 29 May 2015 dr. Flavia Zorzi Giustiniani – IDLP coordinator – participated in the Day Conference “Culture on the Move: Migration, Living Traditions and Cultural Heritage Protection” organized by the Law School of the Brunel University. She presented a paper entitled “Preserving the Cultural Heritage of Small Island Developing States’ Communities Displaced by Slow-onset Disasters”.

The agenda of the Conference can be accessed here.

3rd Course on "International Disaster Response Law"

1 - 3 May 2015 - Sanremo, Italy

From 1 to 3 May 2015 the IDLP Team, in partnership with senior officers of the Italian Red Cross National Commission on the Dissemination of International Humanitarian Law, organized the 3rd Course on IDRL in Sanremo, Italy.

Aimed to train Italian Red Cross IHL Instructors in IDRL fundamentals, the Course offered both lecturer-led and practical sessions specifically targeted to Italian Red Cross volunteers, who gathered from around the country for a practical overview of the key legal issues to consider in preparing for and responding to disasters. See more on the IFRC’s website here.

2nd IIHL-IFRC International Disaster Law Course

27 April - 1 May 2015

Following the success of the 2014 International Disaster Law Course, the IDLP organized jointly with the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Disaster Law Programme (IFRC), the 2nd International Disaster Law Course which was conducted by the International Institute of Humanitarian Law of Sanremo, Italy. According to an already well-established formula, the Course was directed by David Fisher (Coordinator, Disaster Law Programme, IFRC) and Paulo Cavaleri (Senior Disaster Law Officer, IFRC), and coordinated by IDLP Coordinating Team and the support of the Italian Red Cross.

The IDL Course posits that every year, natural disasters upend the lives of hundreds of million of people around the world, and tries to understand what International Law can do to save us from the force of nature and our own vulnerabilities. The cutting-edge IDL Course was aimed at graduate and postgraduate students in law, political science, as well as practitioners, introducing them to the norms on humanitarian assistance, human rights, civil protection, cultural heritage, environmental protection risk reduction and climate change. Lectures were delivered by distinguished speakers such as dr. Eduardo Valencia-Ospina (Special Rapporteur of the ILC on the Protection of Persons in the Event of Disasters), Prof. Walter Kälin (former Representative of the UN Secretary-General on the Human Rights of Internally Displaced Persons), academics, and representatives of relevant international and national actors involved in IDL - such as IFRC, OCHA, IAEA, the Italian Civil Protection and the Italian Red Cross.

Please consult the general course information booklet for further details regarding the 2015 edition application procedure and other relevant administrative information.

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3. Future Activities

4th Course on "International Disaster Response Law"

22-24 July 2016

Following a consolidated tradition, the IDLP will cooperate with the senior officers of the Italian Red Cross Commission for the dissemination of IHL in the organization and delivery of the 4th edition of the "International Disaster Response Law" for the IHL instructors of the Italian Red Cross. This year edition venue will be Marina di Massa, at the Codam (Centro Operativo Deposito Deposito Addestramento Militare) of the Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna regions. Stay tuned for the agenda of the Course on the IDLP and Italian Red Cross websites.

3rd IIHL-IFRC International Disaster Law Course

13-17 June 2016

Organized jointly by the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Disaster Law Programme (IFRC) and the International Institute of Humanitarian Law of Sanremo, Italy, and coordinated by the IDLP Coordinating Team with the cooperation of the Italian Red Cross, the 3rd Edition of the IIHL-IFRC International Disaster Law Course will take place in mid-June 2016.

The agenda of the Course will be released shortly on the IDL, IFRC and IIHL websites.

International Conference "The Protection of Persons in Times of Disasters: International and European Perspectives"

3-4 March 2016 - Rome, Italy

Organized by the Uninettuno and Sant'Anna IDLP units under the scientific coordination of dr. Flavia Zorzi Giustiniani - IDLP national coordinator - and dr. Emanuele Sommario - IDLP unit coordinator - under the Patronage of the Italian Branch of the International Law Association and with the generous contribution of the Spazio Europa - Ufficio di Informazione in Italia del Parlamento Europeo, the International Conference "The Protection of Persons in Times of Disasters: International and European Legal Perspectives" will take place at the Sala delle Bandiere of the Information Office of the European Parliament in Rome, via IV Novembre 149. The Conference will discuss three clusters of themes concerning the protection of persons in times of disasters, namely disaster-induced displacement, human rights and calamities, and human rights in disaster settings. Overall, the conference aims at providing a comprehensive assessment of the main legal issues and challenges concerning the applicability of international human rights law in disaster situations and the role of this body of law in shaping the obligations of States and other actors involved. Speakers will include distinguished academics, including Prof. Walter Kaelin, and practitioners, including IOM and IDMC.

To get more information on the Conference and read its agenda visit the IDL website.

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4. Developments in Int'l Disaster Law

Developments in International Law

2015 UN Paris Conference on Climate Change

12 December 2015

After twelve days of intense negotiations, on 12 December 2015 the Paris Climate Change Conference adopted the long awaited Paris Agreement (FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1), which will enter into force once 55 States Parties accounting for 55% of total greenhouse gas emissions ratify it. Against political and doctrinal debates concerning the legal character of the Paris outcome (see Bodansky here, here, here and here and Pauwelyn and Andonova here), no question can anymore be raised as to whether the Agreement constitutes an internationally legally binding treaty with a global reach within the meaning of art. 2(1)(a) of the Vienna Convention on the Law of the Treaties: it indeed does, to the extent that it will formally replace the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2020. Although not all of its provisions establish legal obligations upon States parties, nevertheless the scope of those that have a binding character and the reach of the compliance mechanisms created therein prompted numerous commentators to label it as historic and a decisive step forward.

The Agreement is an agile document of 29 articles, opened by a preamble which embraces the same object and purpose of the UNFCCC and qualifies climate change as a ‘common concern of humankind’; accordingly, paragraph eleven of the preamble acknowledges that in taking action to address climate change States should respect, promote and consider human rights, including the right to health, the rights of vulnerable groups and individuals, the right to development and intergenerational equality.

Art. 2(1) is the substantial core of the Agreement: it establishes that the main means to combat climate change and its adverse effects are (a) holding the increase in the global average temperature “well below 2 °C” above pre-industrial level and “pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1,5 °C” above pre-industrial level; (b) strengthening adaptation and resilience; (c) “making financial flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development”. As to the first goal, its drafting required extensive negotiations (although held closed-doors, some hints on the standstill and then resolution of negotiations concerning this standard are reported here and here) and its tortuous final wording is certainly the effect of some bargaining among delegations. Art. 2(2) is remarkable as well, as it confirms the principle of differentiated responsibility but overcomes the Kyoto rigid distinction between “Annex I” and “non-Annex I” countries –  a decision that, as highlighted by one commentator, has the merit of “reorienting the UN climate change regime to make it truly global”.

The substantial remainder of the Agreement can be ideally divided into four categories of provisions: (i) articles devoted to holding global average temperature below 2 °C – i.e. art. 3, art. 4(1)-(4), (6)-(15), (19), art. 5(1); (ii) articles concerning adaptation and resilience – i.e. arts. 7, 8, 10(1)-(2), 11, 12; (iii) articles regulating financial flows – i.e. arts. 4(5), 9, 10(6) ; (iv) articles establishing mechanisms or allowing enhanced voluntary cooperation – i.e. arts. 4(16)-(18), 5(2), 6, 9(8), 10(3)-(5), 13, 14, 15, 16.

Its most fundamental substantial provisions are certainly those requiring all parties to submit nationally determined contributions (the so-called NDCs) and to compulsorily update them every five years in order to guarantee a progression beyond current NDCs (art. 4(3)), and establishing their responsibility for emission levels (art. 4(17)). The variety of different mechanisms created is also impressive: art. 6(4) establishes a mechanism “to contribute to the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and support sustainable development”; art. 9 provides that a Financial Mechanism will be responsible for gathering information from developed States as to their financial contribution to assist developing countries; art. 10 establishes a Technology Mechanism to promote and facilitate enhanced action on technology development and technology transfer; art. 13 creates a transparency framework which includes national communications, establishment of national inventories of anthropogenic emissions, sharing of information, biennial reports and updates reports, international assessment, consultations, analysis and technical experts reviews; art. 14 provides that the Conference of the States Parties “shall periodically take stock of the implementation of this Agreement to assess the collective progress towards achieving the purpose of this Agreement and its long-term goals”; in order to do so, art. 15 establishes a mechanism to facilitate implementation and promote compliance.

Among other provisions, art. 8 is particularly relevant in disaster settings. It directly links climate change and extreme weather events and recognizes the importance of “averting, minimizing and addressing loss and damages associated with” the latter. Article 8(2) subjects the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damages associated with Climate Change Impacts to the Conference of the States Parties of the Agreement but regrettably subsequent paragraphs do not establish legally binding and justiciable obligations on States Parties; their wording is indeed construed in terms of “should”. Art. 8(3)-(4) in particular, promotes (but it seemingly does not impose) cooperation and facilitation in eight areas, namely: early warning; emergency preparedness; slow onset events; events that may involve irreversible and permanent loss and damage; comprehensive risk assessment and management; risk insurance facilities, climate risk pooling and other insurance solutions; non-economic losses; resilience of communities, livelihoods and ecosystems.

Overall, the Paris Agreement uses 10 times the word cooperation, 25 the term “should” (sometimes regrettably, as with regard to the respect of human rights and the ecosystem in the preamble and in art. 7(5)) and 116 times the term “shall”. As obvious, it heavily relies on compliance mechanisms established therein and national implementation – but it certainly “puts the climate regime on a broad-based, durable footing” (see again Bodansky here).

IDL and the 32nd 2015 ICRC International Conference

8-11 December 2015

On December 8-11, 2015, the 32nd International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent took place in Geneva, bringing together the States parties to the Geneva Conventions, the Red Cross Red Crescent Movement, and partner organisations. Ever since 2003, the International Conference has been a central international forum for assessing and advancing the state of disaster law worldwide. In 2015, the Conference addressed the following themes related to disaster law: accelerating progress in the facilitation and regulation of international disaster response; strengthening laws for disaster risk reduction; providing supportive legal frameworks for saving lives through first aid. The Conference unanimously adopted a resolution committing to further progress on all three themes.

The main meeting concerning Disaster Law issues has been the Commission E (session 2) on “Strengthening legal frameworks for disasters and emergencies", chaired by Mr. Fabrizio Curcio, Head of the Italian Civil Protection. This session addressed progress and opportunities in strengthening legal frameworks for disasters and emergencies. This included an appraisal of progress thus far in the implementation of the “Guidelines for the domestic facilitation and regulation of international disaster relief and initial recovery assistance,” as adopted by the 30th International Conference in 2007, noting the main factors for success, opportunities and remaining challenges. It also looked to the role of domestic law in promoting disaster risk reduction, in particular with regard to relevant commitments in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. It finally highlighted findings about gaps in domestic law related to the promotion of training and delivery of first aid by laypersons.

The Conference also reviewed the results of consultations by the International Federation with stakeholders that have taken place earlier in 2015 to identify current local initiatives and encourage local actors to take immediate measures to prevent and respond to gender-based violence in disaster preparedness, response and recovery. Disaster law issues have also been the topic of two specific side events at the Conference: Strengthening legal preparedness for disasters and disaster risk reduction in the Pacific and MIKTA efforts on strengthening international disaster response laws.  

The main documents of the Conference are available here

Nansen Initiative Inter-Governmental Global Consultation on the Protection Agenda

12-13 October 2015

On 12 and 13 October 2015, in the framework of the Swiss/Norwegian Nansen Initiative, Geneva hosted the Intergovernmental Global Consultation on the Protection Agenda, which brought together more than 350 delegates, including government ministers and officials from over one hundred countries, international and non-governmental organizations as well as academic institutions and civil society representatives who endorsed the conclusions and recommendations of the “Agenda for the Protection of Cross-Border Displaced Persons in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change”. Rather than calling for a new binding international convention on cross-border disaster displacement, the draft Protection Agenda supports an approach that focuses on the integration effective practices, normative frameworks, regional-specific situations and challenges Regional Civil Society Meetings, and consultations in the Pacific, the Americas, Africa, Asia and Europe to reflect on issues related to humanitarian action, human rights protection, migration management, disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation, refugee protection, and development.

The core of this Agenda is the paragraph concerning the Protection of Cross-Border Disaster-Displaced Persons, that should take two forms. First of all, States should ensure protection and assistance to those people who are fleeing in the aftermath of a disaster. Secondly, in a comprehensive approach, it should be necessary to tackle disaster displacement risk in the country of origin by reducing vulnerability and building resilience to displacement risk as well as by planning an effective relocation that considers the participation of affected people.

In addition, to facilitate follow up on this agenda and implementation of activities identified in the three priority areas for action addressing cross-border disaster-displacement, the participants have proposed some next steps. The first one should be to provide a forum for dialogue among interested States to further discuss how best to protect cross-border disaster-displaced persons, and prevent disaster displacement, where possible. Then, it could be efficient to enhance cooperation and coordination between international organizations and agencies, and other relevant actors, in order to ensure a comprehensive approach to cross-border disaster-displacement. Prof. Walter Kaelin, Envoy of the Chairmanship of the Nansen Initiative, commented on the Initiative by affirming that “disaster displacement represents one of the biggest humanitarian challenges of the 21st century. Yesterday’s overwhelming endorsement of the Protection Agenda shows that States are ready to work together to tackle current and future displacement challenges. The Agenda provides States and other stakeholders with an innovative and forward-looking framework for action”.

17th Session of the World Meteorological Congress

25 May - 15 June 2015

The 17th session of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Congress, held in Geneva from 25 May to 12 June 2015 focused on disaster and climate resilience, with sessions on data rescue, early warning, disaster risk reduction, loss data, climate services, urban, and private sector.

World Meteorological Congress, the supreme body of the WMO, assembles delegates of Members once every four years to determine general policies for the fulfilment of the purposes of the Organization; to consider membership of the Organization; to determine the General, Technical, Financial and Staff Regulations; to establish and coordinate the activities of constituent bodies of the Organization; to approve long-term plans and budget for the following financial period; to elect the President and Vice-Presidents of the Organization and members of the Executive Council; and to appoint the Secretary-General.

The main outcomes and relevant documents of the Congress are contained in the Abridged final report with resolutions.

ISDR Asia Partnership meeting of 2015

3-5 June 2015

The 1st ISDR Asia Partnership (IAP) meeting of the year 2015 was held on 3-5 June 2015 in Bangkok, Thailand. This meeting brought together more than 90 participants that included 26 government delegates from 17 countries and number of participants from private sector organizations, International Financial Institutions (IFIs), bilateral donors, UN & International organizations, civil society organizations and media.

The ISDR Asia Partnership (IAP) has been an informal multi-stakeholder forum with the role to facilitate implementation of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-15 (HFA) in the Asia region.

The meeting Report is available here

Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction

14-15 March 2015

On 20 December 2013, the United Nations General Assembly passed a resolution to hold the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction from 14 to 18 March 2015 in Sendai, Japan.

Hosted by the Government of Japan in cooperation with the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), as secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, the World Conference reviewed the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action and adopted a successor framework for disaster risk reduction. The main outcomes of the Conference are the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, the Sendai Declaration - which expresses the commitment of Heads of State and Government to implement the Sendai Framework - and a series of voluntary commitments by governments and other stakeholders, inviting further commitments and the creation of partnerships to implement the Framework.

The post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction is based on the knowledge and practice developed through the implementation of the International Framework for the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction of 1989, the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action of 1994, the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction of 1999 and the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters.

With an overarching intended outcome of “The substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries”, the framework aims to “Prevent new and reduce existing disaster risk through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery, and thus strengthen resilience”.

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Developments in EU Law and Practice

EU Council Presidency Activates Crisis Response Information Exchange

30 October 2015

The Luxembourg Presidency decided on 30 October 2015 to trigger, for the first time, the Integrated Political Crisis Response arrangements. The aim is to monitor the development of migratory flows, to support decision-making and to better implement the agreed measures.Under the information sharing mode.

EU Member States and institutions as well as relevant agencies are requested to continuously share updated information on the situation on the ground via a common web platform. The Commission and the European External Action Service will provide regular integrated analysis of the information provided to facilitate common decision-making and a coordinated crisis response between Member States.

6th European Forum for Disaster Risk Reduction

7-9 October 2015

The European Forum for Disaster Risk Reduction, a framework for exchanging information and knowledge, gathered on 7-9 October 2015. The meeting was hosted and chaired by the French Ministry of Environment, and organized in collaboration with the Council of Europe, the European Commission and the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction. The representatives of several States, international organisations and non-governmental organisations participated in the meeting.

The meeting was meant to foster discussion, exchanges and synergies towards disaster risk reduction activities in Europe and to provide inputs to the implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. The results of the meeting are summarised in a final document, which calls, in particular, for the upcoming COP21 to reinforce synergies in addressing climate change adaptation, especially when developing national and local disaster risk reduction strategies. The document also underlines the need to further develop a European private-public sector approach to disaster risk reduction, allowing for incentives for risk informed investments in prevention.

EU's Civil Protection Mechanism Helps Five European States Cope with Refugees Influx

September - October 2015

Hungary, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia and Greece activated the Union Civil Protection Mechanism in September and October 2015 to benefit from material support to help cope with the influx of refugees and asylum seekers. The requesting countries demanded material support for beds, mattresses, hygiene items, vehicles, fuel and food. Several EU Member States have offered material support such as blankets, bed linen and tents.

The European Commission, which generally finances about half of the transport costs entailed by the assistance delivered via the EU Civil protection Mechanism, decided to increase its support for the countries needing help in the refugee crisis. As a consequence, Commission funds cover 85% of the transport expenses.

Establishment of the New EU Disaster Risk Management Knowledge Centre

30 September 2015

The Disaster Risk Management Knowledge Centre was launched on 30th September 2015 to help enhance EU and Member States resilience to disasters and their capacity to prevent, prepare and respond to emergencies through a strengthened interface between science and policy.

The Disaster Risk Management Knowledge Centre contributes to the Union Civil Protection Mechanism legislation, one of whose priorities is to improve the knowledge base on disaster risks and facilitate sharing of knowledge, best practices and information. Improving the Disaster Risk Management knowledge and evidence base is also of relevance to, and increasingly mainstreamed across, a range of other policies both at national and European level, including research and innovation, climate change adaptation, development, environment, security, health, insurance, energy and transport policies. The first seminar of the Disaster Risk Management Knowledge Centre took place on 24 and 25 November 2015 in London, to address several aspects of Disaster Risk Management, including risk assessments, early warning, and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

European Commission adopts Risk Management Capability Assessment Guidelines

August 2015

The European Commission adopted Risk Management Capability Assessment Guidelines in August 2015. The Guidelines have been prepared together with experts from Member States and taking into account existing good practices at the national level, as well as recent experience in developing national risk assessments. They provide Member States with a non-binding comprehensive and flexible methodology that will assist them in the self-assessment of their risk management capability.

The Guidelines seek to support Member States' authorities to develop and share knowledge-based and evidence-based disaster management policies and practices among the relevant administrative levels, and to facilitate cooperation in the efforts to manage risks in the context of the Union Civil Protection Mechanism and other relevant disaster management systems. The Guidelines may be reviewed, in the future, in light of the practical implementation experience in Member States.

EU Assists Greece in Fighting Forest Fires

July 2015

Greece activated the Union Civil Protection Mechanism in July 2015, requesting firefighting planes, to stop the spread of forest fires in several parts of the country, including in the outskirts of Athens. France responded to the request, by providing 2 Canadair firefighting planes and a plane that ensured coordination. 

These planes are part of the European Emergency Response Capacity, a voluntary pool of relief teams, experts and equipment, which Member States keep on standby for EU civil protection missions all over the world. The voluntary pool was created after the adoption of the Decision on a Union Civil Protection Mechanism in 2013. It is the first time that planes have been activated from the EU’s civil protection pool of assets for fighting forest fires.

European Civil Protection Forum

6-7 May 2015

On 6-7 May 2015, in Brussels took place the European Civil Protection Forum organised by the European Commission, Directorate General Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection (DG ECHO). It featured a two-day conference and an indoor and outdoor exhibition, all under the central theme of "Partnership and Innovation" focusing on new technologies and innovative ways of engaging with communities and various organisations. The Forum gathered representatives of the European, UN institutions and authorities from around the world (i.e. civil protection and emergency response organisations in the EU Member States, the USA Federal Emergency Management Agency, Japan, Association of Southeast Asian Nations - ASEAN, European Neighbourhood countries), but also new partners, such as private companies, NGOs, academia, scientific institutes as well as European cities and regions.

New EU Directive on the Consular Protection of EU Citizens

20 April 2015

The Council of the European Union adopted on 20 April 2015 Directive 2015/637 on the consular protection of EU citizens in third countries, which replaces a Council Decision of 1995. Pursuant to article 23 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, every citizen of the Union, in the territory of a third country in which the Member State of which he/she is a national is not represented, is entitled to protection by the diplomatic or consular authorities of any other Member State. Directive 2015/637 implements the right to assistance, by defining the procedures and conditions applicable to the consular protection of EU citizens.

The Directive defines, in particular, rules applicable to the protection of EU citizens in case of crises. The missions of EU countries should prepare for possible crises, by coordinating contingency plans among themselves and with the delegation of the Union (a sort of EU embassy). In the event of a crisis, the Union and Member States shall closely cooperate to ensure efficient assistance for unrepresented citizens, notably by informing each other of available evacuation capacities. The Directive confirms that, as was the case in the past, Member States may seek support from the Union Civil Protection Mechanism for the purpose of facilitating the protection of EU citizens (notably, for paying transport costs linked to the evacuation).

Serbia Joins the EU Civil Protection Mechanism

16 April 2015

Following the signing of an agreement with the European Union on 16 April 2015, Serbia became a member of the Union Civil Protection Mechanism (UCPM), which facilitates cooperation in disaster response, preparedness and prevention among 33 European states (the 28 EU Member States plus Iceland, Montenegro, Norway, Serbia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), as well as the assistance to other countries. Serbia, which previously benefited from assistance provided under the UCPM, may now contribute to pool resources which can be made available to disaster-stricken countries in Europe and all over the world.

EU Supports the Evacuation of EU Citizens from Yemen

16 April 2015

Germany activated the Union Civil Protection Mechanism on 16 April 2015, to request support for the evacuation of EU citizens from Yemen. The situation in Yemen was serious, with large numbers of casualties reported, health facilities overstretched and water and food supply disrupted. Germany requested financial support to co-finance a flight in order to evacuate more than 100 people. The evacuation was successfully completed shortly afterwards, with the plane landing in Munich.

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Developments in Other Regional Organizations

Kyrgyzstan Takes the Regional Lead on Legislation for the Facilitation of International Disaster Relief Assistance

July 2015

In the aftermath of the two recent earthquakes in Nepal, Kyrgyzstanis has clearly recognized the urgency of adopting a comprehensive legal framework to manage potential future international disaster assistance. Indeed, the Kyrgyz Republic is well known for its exposure to natural disasters, a situation that is further aggravated by hard socio-economic conditions that affect most areas of the country.

The potential catastrophic situation triggered a meeting between representatives from government, parliament, the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, UN agencies and NGOs to discuss about a new normative framework relating to emergency events. The gathering took place in May 2015 at the UN House in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan and the participants adopted a draft law on “International Humanitarian Aid in Emergency Situations”. It is intended to modify the current legal and regulatory issues that arise in major disaster operations, that are related to the entry and operation of assisting international actors, and also to the coordination of their assistance, especially in the relief and initial recovery period. This text is similar to the “Model Act on the Facilitation and Regulation of International Disaster Relief and Initial Recovery Assistance” launched by the IFRC, OCHA and Inter-Parliamentary Union in 2013 and endorsed last year by the Inter-Parliamentary Assembly of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) and by the Collective Security Treaty Organization on April 2015. Kyrgyzstan is member of both the Organizations and, given its commitment to explore how the disaster law guidelines can apply to the regional context, it is possible to foresee that the new legislation, if approved by the Kyrgyz Parliament, could become a reference for neighbouring countries in Central Asia.

On this path, more recently the Central Asia State has hosted a Workshop to explore how to build greater resilience in areas highly vulnerable to weather and climate-related disasters. Regional experts and stakeholders met in Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic, from 8 to 11 September 2015 and agreed on the necessity to restore and increase “availability of climate observations in Central Asia for improving regional long-term climate projections, seasonal to sub-seasonal climate forecasts and risk assessment”. Finally, on occasion of the International Day for Disaster Risk Reduction (13 October), the Kyrgyz government has taken actions and measures designed to improve awareness on giving response to emergency situations all over the country. The events, such as simulations and first aid training activities, were organised in collaboration with the partners of the Red Crescent Society of the Kyrgyz Republic in terms of disaster risk reduction, such as the American Red Cross, German Red Cross, European Commission, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, International Committee of the Red Cross, Finnish Red Cross and Swiss Red Cross.

The Central America's Integral Disaster Risk Management Policy Adopted the Declaration of El Salvador

19-20 June 2015 - San Salvador

On 19-20 June 2015, the city of San Salvador held the Third Consultative Forum of the Central America’s Integral Disaster Risk Management Policy (PCIGR). Governmental and local authorities, actors of nongovernmental and international organisations, representatives of the civil society and of private sector gathered to debate about the necessity to harmonise operational and financial policies and strategies at global and regional level in the field of Disaster Risk Management. At the end of this meeting the participants adopted the Declaration of San Salvador setting out steps to address some relevant issues.

Among the priorities indicated, it is worth to mention the need “to harmonize, coordinate and implement regulatory frameworks on risk management and adaptation to climate change” and “to update, standardise and apply tools, procedures and exchanges of experience aimed at strengthening and consolidating the Regional Mutual Assistance Mechanism disaster”. In addition, the Consultative Forum adopted a document reporting some Strategic Actions to progress in the development of other instruments for mutual assistance in the region. In particular, it put recommendations in the field of DRR as for sustainable economic development, social compensation to reduce vulnerability by implementing risk management laws, environment protection and climate change, territorial management and governance by updating land use plans, as well as disasters management and recovery by supporting humanitarian assistance coordination centres.

The Forum presented developments of mechanisms of mutual aid as the Central American Protocol on the Sending, Transit and reception of Humanitarian Assistance, and the draft Central American Regulation on the Facilitation on the Sending and Transit of Relief Consignments. To be more effective, participants called upon the governments of Central America to adopt the instruments developed within the Disaster Law Program and to include National Societies as permanent members of their centres for humanitarian coordination. Indeed, the National Societies had a relevant role in the preparation of this Meeting by giving their own contribution with the adoption of the “Agreement of the National Red Cross Societies of Central America in Contribution to the PCIGR”. By this document, Presidents of the National Societies offered their support to the governments of the region in the revision of the legislation related to international disaster assistance. Moreover, during the forum, in a parallel session, the Presidents of the regional National Societies recognized the advancement in the area of disaster law and agreed to further promote developments with their governments, including through use of the new “Checklist on law and disaster risk reduction” developed by the IFRC and UNDP.  

The Declaration of San Salvador was welcomed and subscribed by the 45th Meeting of Heads of State and Government of Central America held in Antigua, Guatemala, on June 26, 2015.

African States and International Experts Endorsed a New International Framework on Cooperation in Emergency Relief Operations

In the course of 2015, an year dedicated by the 24th African Union Summit to “Women’s Empowerment and Development towards Africa’s Agenda 2063”, the regional organisation and its partners have participated and will participate in milestone events at international level on sustainable development, climate change and cooperation in emergency situations.  

At the end of June, the African Union Commission and the International Federation of Red Cross Societies and Red Crescent (IFRC) organised a meeting on “How to accelerate progress in improving the facilitation and regulation of international disaster response” in order to discuss strategies for risk and disaster management in the continent. The event brought together representatives from more than twenty African governments, disaster management agencies, National Red Cross Red Crescent Societies, African regional economic communities, UN agencies, and scholars to identify legal priorities in the context of disasters, including international response, disaster risk reduction and gender-based violence in emergencies. It was an occasion to stress the necessity that African States reduce disaster risk by adopting national sectoral policies and establish a clear legal framework defining duties, rights and responsibilities of the various international actors providing assistance. Finally, participants at the meeting endorsed the need for a stronger international disaster response framework and for a more incisive role of the African Union in creating resilient and better prepared societies for the challenges engendered with the disasters on the continent. The proposal of adopting a new international framework on cooperation in emergency relief operations was submitted to a high-level discussion at the 32nd International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent.

The 7th Africa Working Group Meeting on Disaster Risk Reduction

3 July 2015

On July 3, 2015, the Departments of Economic Affairs, Rural Economy and Agriculture, Political Affairs of the African Union Commission, the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs Liaison office to the African Union, and the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, jointly organised a session entitled “The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030: The Future of Disaster Risk Reduction in Africa”. The main objective was to reflect on the outcomes of Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 on the African continent and how the African Union can strengthen its capacity to prevent and address natural and climate-induced disasters in Africa. In addition, as this year has been dedicated to women’s empowerment and development, most of the debate focused on the role of women in Disaster Risk Reduction and in the implementation of the Sendai Framework. At the end of July 2015, the city of Yaoundé, Cameroon, held the 7th Africa Working Group (AWG) Meeting on Disaster Risk Reduction, which meets every two years to evaluate the progress made regionally on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action, of the Africa Regional Strategy for DRR and of its Extended Programme of Action: 2006-2015. 

On this occasion, the talks brought together representatives from four dozen governments, Africa’s Regional Economic Communities, the African Union and a swath of UN and other international organizations. It was deeply discussed theadoption of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 (SFDRR) in order to find an agreement on concrete follow-up actions and political commitments to ensure effective implementation of the framework in the continent. However, the gathering had wider implications since it marked the first meeting at intergovernmental level to put the new agreement into action since its adoption. Moreover, the 7th Africa Working Group Meeting on Disaster Risk has been followed by the 4th High Level Meeting on Disaster Risk Reduction, drawing ministers and other senior officials, in order to issue a declaration calling on the African Union to steer a continent-wide Sendai Framework alignment. Indeed, at the conclusion of the meeting participants adopted the Yaoundé Declaration requesting the Africa Union to lead on fostering Africa’s strategies with the targets outlined in the Sendai Framework. Moreover, the declaration further calls upon African Union Member States and Regional Economic Communities to debate about their strategies and to integrate disaster risk reduction in their economic development policies and programmes as the most important tool for resilience, sustainability and human and capital development. Finally, the Working Group adopted some recommendations containing four priorities for DRR to be tackled at local, national, regional and continental level according to the subsidiarity principle. Among these, it appears particularly relevant the request to launch a dedicated structure for coordination of disaster risk reduction in the African Union.

These meetings have fostered ideas and priority areas for future work on disaster law in the continent and have shown that accelerating progress in improving the facilitation and regulation of international disaster assistance is becoming a high-profile issue for the African Union.

MENA Adopted the Disaster Risk Management Strategy 2015-2020

10-11 June 2015

On 10 and 11 June, 2015, twelve National Societies from the Middle East and North Africa convened in Kuwait to deliver the MENA recommendations in preparation for the 32nd International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent. Topics of discussion included accelerating progress in the facilitation and regulation of relief in non-conflict disasters, the role of legislation in disaster risk reduction and gender-based violence in disasters. As for challenging issues, it was observed that rescue teams experience some regulatory problems in providing assistance abroad and at home. Indeed, by presenting some examples concerning the Libyan and Iranian context, it was highlighted the tendency among countries to use ad hoc procedures and personal relationships to address the regulatory issues in international disaster response. In addition, even though regional agreements on disaster response exist, their implementation is still lacking. Thus, the participants welcomed the presentation of the MENA Disaster Management Strategy 2015-2020 aimed at developing national laws and practice, promoting regional preparedness and fostering solutions at the international level.

The 2015-2020 MENA Region National Societies Disaster and Crisis Management Strategy (DCMS) is a result of collaboration between the 17 Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies in the MENA region, the IFRC, ICRC and other partnering National Societies. According to this project, MENA National Societies are invited to take a proactive role in assessing and analyzing population needs in an ongoing basis, recruiting, retaining, and professionalizing their workforce and monitoring progress over time using the Balanced Scorecard approach. In particular, it is requested to strengthen the physical, economic, and social factors in our communities though four program priorities that are health and social services, DDR, disaster and crisis management, and livelihood security. For this purpose, the project provides the involvement of competent youth, volunteers and staff members and right-sized organizational structures

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5. IDL Publications

New IDLP Publications

IDLP Coordinators Sommario and Zorzi Giustiniani Contribute to IDL Debates on SIDIBlog

The blog of the Italian Society of International Law - SIDIBlog - hosted two posts from IDLP coordinators. The first contribution of dr. Emanuele Sommario - IDLP unit coordinator - focused on the international response to the Nepal earthquake. Read dr. Sommario post here: Sommario E., "Il terremoto in Nepal e la risposta (del diritto) internazionale", in SIDIBlog (2015).

The second contribution of dr. Flavia Zorzi Giustiniani - IDLP national coordinator - moved from the consequences of the Nepal earthquake to reflect upon the protection accorded to IDPs in the wake of a disaster. Read dr. Zorzi Giustiniani's post here: Zorzi Giustiniani F., "Quale protezione per le persone sfollate a seguito di un disastro?", in SIDIBlog (2015)

Report on the Roma Tre Expert Meeting Published as IDL Working Paper

The Report of the Roma Tre University Expert Meeting on the ILC’s Draft Artciles on the protection of persons in the event of disasters adopted in first reading in 2014 was authored by Prof. Giulio Bartolini, dr. Tommaso Natoli and dr. Alice Riccardi and published as IDL Working Paper 3 (2015).

The Report summarizes the presentations and discussions in which a group of experts from international organizations, academia, governments and civil society engaged during a two-day meeting at the Law Department of the Roma Tre University. The idea underlying the meeting was to facilitate an open debate with relevant stakeholders and external experts at a critical moment for the ILC’s Project, in anticipation of the second reading.

Enjoy the vibrant discussions among high-level representatives of the main humanitarian organizations involved in the area and of renowned scholars by downloading the full Report here.

Report on the Application of International Disaster Law in Italy

 

The Report IDRL in Italy - Strenghtening the Legal and Policy Framework for International Disaster Response, prepared by dr. Mauro Gatti under the supervision of Prof. Federico Casolari (coordinator of the Bologna unit of the IDL Project), was published in June 2015. The Report was commissioned by the Italian Red Cross and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and was published in the framework of the IFRC disaster law programme. The investigation is part of a wider study on the application of International Disaster Laws Rules and Principles (IDRL) in in six EU Member States.

The work acknowledges that Italy is often struck by catastrophes and has developed an effective response mechanism, but may require international assistance in case of particularly serious disasters. The analysis seeks to identify the major obstacles that existing rules create for international cooperation in the event of disasters in Italy. It seeks also to point out solutions (mostly legislative ones) that may contribute to enhancing international cooperation in the response to disasters occurring in Italy.

The report can be downloaded from the IFRC website, either in English or Italian.

Prof. Giulio Bartolini Comments Upon International Legal Issues Connected to the Activities of Relief Personnel and on the Definition of Disasters

In his article entitled “Attribution of Conduct and Liability Issues Arising from International Disaster Relief Missions: Theoretical and Pragmatic Approaches to Guaranteeing Accountability”, in 48 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law (2015) pp. 1029 ff, Prof. Giulio Bartolini - IDLP unit coordinator - discusses issues related to harmful activities of international disaster relief personnel from two different angles, i.e. on the uncertainty of the attribution of their conducts to States, and international organizations, and on liability issues arising in relief operations.

In a different contribution published on the Rivista di Diritto Internazionale, Prof. Bartolini discusses on the definition of disasters in light of the ILC Draft Articles on the Protection of Persons in the Event of Disaster: G. Bartolini, "La definizione di disastro nel progretto di articoli della Commissione del diritto internazionale", in 98 Rivista di Diritto Internazionale (2015), pp. 155 ff.

Prof. Federico Casolari Reviews a Book on EU Management of Global Emergencies

The Italian Yearbook of International Law published a review, by Prof. Federico Casolari, of the book EU Management of Global Emergencies: Legal Framework for Combating Threats and Crises, eds. Inge Govaere and Sara Poli (Brill | Nijhoff, 2014). According to Prof. Casolari, "this is an exceedingly readable, informative and useful book", whose essential arguments "remain relevant and topical and thus represent an important contribution to a global understanding of the tangled interplay between the Union and emergency scenarios".

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IDL Publications

• Bae Y., Joo Y.M., Won S.Y., “Decentralization and collaborative disaster governance: Evidence from South Korea”, in Habitat International (2015)

• Browne L., “Disaster Relief: Restricting and Regulating Public Health Interventions”, in 43 The Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics (2015) pp. 45 ff.

• da Costa K., Pospieszna P., “The Relationship between Human Rights and Disaster Risk Reduction Revisited: Bringing the Legal Perspective into the Discussion”, in 6 Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies (2015) pp. 64 ff.

• Fisher D., Cipullo L., Granger I., Limuloa F., "Beyond Operations: Law, Governance and the Role of Local Actors", in ICRC World Disaster Report (2015), pp. 64 ff.

• Hasegawa R., "Returning home after Fukushima: Displacement from a nuclear disaster and   international guidelines for internally displaced persons", in The Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Policy Brief Series (September 2015)

• Hilpold P., "Filling a Buzzword with Life: The Implementation of the Solidarity Clause in Article 222 TFEU", in 42 Legal Issues of Economic Integration (2015), pp. 209 ff.

• Minard P., "The IPCR Arrangements: a Joined-up Approach in Crisis Response?", Brief Issue - EU Institute for Security Studies, December 2015

• Pietropaolo M., "Observations on strengthening community participation in disaster risk reduction in disaster law and policy", in 5 ICRC Disaster Law Working Paper Series Paper (2015)

• Sivakumaran S., “Arbitrary Withholding of Consent to Humanitarian Assistance in Situations of Disaster”, in 64 International and Comparative Law Quarterly (2015) pp. 501 ff.

• Turner R., “Barriers to customs entry at the time of disaster in developing countries: mitigating the delay of life-saving materials”, in 9 World Customs Journal (2015) pp. 3 ff.

• Zidar A., "WHO International Health Regulations and human rights: from allusions to inclusion", in 19 The International Journal of Human Rights (2015) pp. 505 ff.

• Ulrich L.M., "The Customary International Law Obligation to Protect Disaster Relief Personnel and their Property", in 22 Williamette Journal of International Law & Dispute Resolution (2015) pp. 343 ff.

Special Issue of Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law: This is not a Drill (Volume 48, Issue 4), which includes:

• Katcha E., “Challenges for 'Affected States' in Accepting International Disaster Aid: Lessons from Hurricane Katrina”, in 48 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law (2015) pp. 921 ff.

• Pronto A. N., “Understanding the Hard/Soft Distinction in International Law”, in 48 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law (2015) pp. 941 ff.

• Bookmiller K. N., “Professional Standards and Legal Standards Setting: INSARAG, FMTs, and International Disaster Relief Volunteers”, in 48 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law (2015) pp. 957 ff.

• Clark N. E., “Imagery and Expectations for International Disaster Response”, in 48 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law (2015) pp. 985 ff.

• Telesetsky A., “Beyond Voluntary Corporate Social Responsibility: Corporate Human Rights Obligations to Prevent Disasters and to Provide Temporary Emergency Relief”, in 48 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law (2015)  pp. 1003 ff.

• Bartolini G., “Attribution of Conduct and Liability Issues Arising from International Disaster Relief Missions: Theoretical and Pragmatic Approaches to Guaranteeing Accountability”, in 48 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law (2015) pp. 1029 ff.

• Hammond E., “Nuclear Power, Risk and Retroactivity”, in 48 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law (2015) pp. 1059 ff.

• Davis L. L. and Jones A., “Fukushima’s Shadow”, in 48 Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law (2015) pp. 1083 ff.

6. News

Free Online Course "Public Health Principles in Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Reponse"

16 November 2015 - 15 May 2016

After the success of the previous three courses, the Collaborating Centre for Oxford University and the CUHK for Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response decided to launch the 4th online course on Public Health Principles in Disaster and Medical Humanitarian Response. From 16 November 2015 to 15 May 2016 the registration has been open to students who will be allowed to study the course until 15 June 2016 at their own pace. The target audience is composed by individuals studying and working in health, policy, education and humanitarian sectors. In addition, students may be civil servants, healthcare personnel, frontline disaster relief practitioners, and postgraduate students of closely-related disciplines. This online course aims at making lessons learnt from previous disasters available and comprehensible to key stakeholders in disaster risk mitigation and the civil society. In particular, students enrolled in the course will gain insight and theoretical understanding of the public health issues related to disaster and be empowered personally and professionally to take necessary actions in the individual, community, and national levels to reduce the health risk posed by the increasing frequency and intensity of disaster.

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Editorial Committee

Mauro Gatti, Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna
Tommaso Natoli, Roma Tre University
Alice Riccardi, Uninettuno University
Susanna Villani, Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna

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The IDL Project is financed by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research under the grant programme FIRB Futuro in Ricerca 2012.